Teologie pentru azi

O platformă ortodoxă pentru o reală postmodernitate

Zi: 7 mai 2013

Istorie III. 15

Pr. Dr. Dorin Octavian Picioruș

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Istoria începe

de oriunde

o privești

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Vol. 3

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Prima parte, a doua, a 3-a, a 4-a, a 5-a, a 6-a, a 7-a, a 8-a, a 9-a, a 10-a, a 11-a, a 12-a, a 13-a, a 14-a.

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54.  Ortografie românească

Într-o carte din 1866[1], Maiorescu afirma faptul că unul dintre scopurile societății literare Junimea este acela de a stabili ortografia limbii române[2].

Limba română este „o limbă romană”[3] și noi trebuie să o înțelegem din punct de vedere gramatical[4].

În comparație cu scrierea hieroglifică, limba română este „o scriere subjectivă”/ subiectivă[5].

Iar autorul motivează în această carte nevoia întoarcerii la alfabetul latin[6] și la o înțelegere curentă a lui.

Maiorescu nu admitea formele ph și th în limba română[7]. Și nici pe y[8] și qu[9].

Și ajunge la concluzia că „fonetismul nu este unu normativu absolutu [un normativ absolut] al scrierei [scrierii]”[10].

După cum considera coruperea fonetică drept viața proprie a limbii și inteligența unui popor[11].

Concluzia finală: etimologismul în ortografia românească este imposibil și nerațional[12].

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55.  O ediție Acta Sanctorum 

În ediția din 1863, volumul 1 are 822 de pagini și se ocupă de luna ianuarie. Zilele 1-11, până la p. 718[13].

Vol. 12, în ediția din 1866, cuprinde al 3-lea volum al lunii aprilie, adică ultimele 11 zile ale lunii[14].

Preponderent în latină, există și pagini întregi în limba greacă…și cuprinde viețile Sfinților Bisericii una dar și pseudo-sfinți romano-catolici.

Colecția poate fi downloadată conform trimiterilor existente în articolul de aici[15] al lui Roger Pearse.

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56. Predica de Paști a Sfântului Ioan Gură de Aur în Penticostarion, Blaj, 1768

O găsim în BRV 363/A, fila 1, existentă aici[16], p. 14-15 din PDF. Și pe aceasta o vom diortosi în secțiunea de față:

De este cineva creștin bun, și iubitor de Dumnezeu, să se îndulcească de acest praznic bun lui Dumnezeu.

De este cineva slugă înțeleaptă, să intre bucurându-se întru bucuria Domnului său.

De s-a ostenit cineva postind, să-și ia acum dinarul.

De a lucrat cineva din ceasul cel dintâi, să-și ia astăzi dreapta plată.

De a venit cineva după ceasul al treilea, mulțumind să prăznuiască.

De a ajuns cineva după ceasul al șaselea, [de] nimic să nu se îndoiască, că[ci] de nimic nu se va păgubi.

De s-a lipsit cineva și de ceasul al nouălea, să se apropie, nimic îndoindu-se.

De a ajuns cineva numai în ceasul al unsprezecelea, să nu se teamă căci s-a izbăvit.

milostiv fiind Stăpânul, primește pe cel de pe urmă, ca și pe cel dintâi.

Odihnește pe cel din al unsprezecelea ceas, ca și pe cel ce a lucrat din ceasul [cel] dintâi.

Și pe cel de pe urmă [îl] miluiește, și pe cel dintâi [îl] mângâie.

Și aceluia [îi] plătește, și acestuia [îi] dăruiește, și faptele [le] primește, și voința [o] cuprinde, și lucrul [îl] cinstește, și îndemnarea o laudă.

Pentru aceasta intrați toți întru bucuria Domnului nostru.

Și cei dintâi și cei de ai doilea luați plată.

Bogații și săracii împreună dănțuiți.

Cei ce v-ați înfrânat, și cei leneși, cinstiți ziua.

Cei ce ați postit și cei ce n-ați postit,  veseliți-vă astăzi.

Masa este plină, ospătați-vă toți!

Vițelul[17] e mult, [de aceea] nimeni să nu iasă flămând.

Toți [să] vă îndulciți de ospățul credinței.

Toți să luați bogăția bunătății.

Nimeni să nu plângă pentru sărăcie, că[ci] s-a arătat Împărăția cea de obște[18].

Nimeni să nu se tânguiască pentru păcate, că[ci] iertarea din groapă a răsărit[19].

Nimeni să nu se teamă de moarte, că[ci] ne-a slobozit pe noi moartea Mântuitorului.

A stins-o pe dânsa Cel ce a fost ținut de aceasta.

A prădat Iadul Cel ce S-a pogorât în Iad.

L-a amărât pe dânsul, gustând trupul Lui.

Și aceasta mai înainte apucând Isaia a strigat: Iadul (zice [el]) s-a amărât, întâmpinându-Te pe Tine jos[20].

S-a amărât, că[ci] s-a stricat.

S-a amărât, că[ci] s-a batjocorit.

S-a amărât, că[ci] s-a omorât.

S-a amărât, că[ci] s-a surpat.

S-a amărât, că[ci] s-a legat.

A luat trup, și de Dumnezeu s-a lovit.

A luat pământ, și s-a întâmpinat cu Cerul.

A luat ce a văzut, și a căzut întru ce n-a văzut.

Unde îți este, moarte, acul?

Unde îți este, Iadule, biruința?

S-a sculat[21] Hristos, și se bucură Îngerii.

A înviat Hristos, și niciun mort nu [mai] este în groapă.

Că[ci] Hristos S-a sculat din morți, [și] începătorul [sculării] celor adormiți S-a făcut.

Aceluia e mărirea, și stăpânirea, în vecii vecilor. Amin!


[1] Titu Maiorescu, Despre scrierea limbei rumăne, Ed. Imprimeria Societăței Junimea, Iassi, 1866, Prefață de două pagini + 152 p.

[2] Idem, Prefață, p. 1.

[3] Idem, p. 2.

[4] Idem, p. 5.

[5] Idem, p. 11.

[6] Idem, p. 48.

[7] Idem, p. 54.

[8] Idem, p. 55.

[9] Idem, p. 65.

[10] Idem, p. 102.

[11] Idem, p. 151.

[12] Idem, p. 152.

[17] Se referă la Sfânta Euharistie, la Trupul și Sângele Domnului.

[18] Împărăția lui Dumnezeu.

[19] Iertarea noastră a venit de la Hristos Dumnezeu, Care a înviat din mormânt.

[20] Jos, adică în Iad.

[21] A înviat din morți Hristos.

The Sight of God in the Theology of Saint Symeon the New Theologian [83]

Here, parts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82.

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Become us, we believe, very evident the accuracy of our commentary, in the light of the finale of Epistle 1:

„To seek, so, better, with tiredness, such of men, who are disciples of Christ, and with the anguish of heart and many tears to pray Him entire days, as to get down the veil from the eyes of our hearts as to recognize them, in the case in that will find one like this in this evil generation and cunning, for as, finding him, to receive through him the forgiveness of our sins, obeying us the commandments and his orderlinesses from all the soul, so how and that one listening the words of Christ was made partaker of the grace and of His gifts and received from Him the power to loose and to bind the sins ignited being by the Holy Ghost”[1].

Is observed how Symeon sees the power to forgive the sins of the charismatic Fathers just in the science of to lead, toward to clean of the passions, through ascesis.

If in sacramental mode, wants to tell us Symeon, we receive the forgiveness of sins made by us, the charismatic Fathers teaches us, through the Ghost, not only how to cleanse us the sins, but and how to separate us, interior, of our passions, how to reach, through the Ghost, at unpassion and deification.

But we cannot, in no case, to accuse on those two Saints remembered, on Symeon, the Father, and on Symeon the New Theologian, the Apprentice, that have usurped the dignity and the charismatic power of cheirotonia and of legal cheirothesia, but, contrariwise, we must see in their effort of to render right, measured and total understanding of charism of forgiveness of sins, an effort of restoration, extraordinary of benefic, of understanding of charisma of forgiveness in the Church, which presuppose, as the Father confessor to be a ghostual Father with legal cheirotonia, but and with the real experience, overwhelming of the Holy Ghost.

Is not enough, reminds us our Father, the New Theologian, to receive the legal cheirotonia from the hands of a father bishop, but we must receive, and from God, the entrusting of this cheirotonia, through the sight of His light and through the profound communion with God, through which to be the speaking mouth of God in the Church.

Symeon connexed the sacramental forgiveness with the forgiveness of sins through ascesis and through the sight of God.

In the Epistle 2, Symeon debuted with a discussion concerning at epithymias, at the practical canons given the penitents.

In the face of sacramental confession, says him, must not to despair from the cause of the crowd of personal sins, but neither to have a thoughtless boldness, ie on the one to expect the forgiveness of proper sins only for that have fulfilled us the canon given by confessor[2].

The forgiveness does not come only for the formal fulfillment of canon, but through the entrance in the quotidian circuit of repentance, where repentance become our daily work[3].

Giving the examples of repentance of Saints David, Manasseh and Peter, Symeon concludes, that these „have received the forgiveness only from the repentance, the crush and the puncture of their [heart] and from the tears which they have shed from the deep of their soul and from the condemnation of their conscience”[4].

Therefore, says he, „the forgiveness of each sins does not make from his works, as does not boast someone [Eph. 2, 9], but from the love of God and from grace[5].

Our Father does not approach the confession only from the prism of the confession of sins and of the receiving of blessing and of priestly absolution, but he debates the ghostual fund of forgiveness, ie the direct action of God in the forgiveness of our sins.

If, often, the Mystery of Confession is looked from bottom to top, from the forgiveness through confessor, which presuppose the concomitant forgiveness from part of God, Symeon looked the forgiveness of sins from top to bottom, ie from the presence of God’s grace in the one that confesses, on the measure of his repentance, which is followed of the absolution of sins, sacramental, through confessor.

More briefly, Symeon asks to feel the direct forgiveness of God through repentance and then to come to receive the absolution of sins in the Mystery of Holy Confession, refelt as a full forgiveness and as a union with Christ, as living member of the Church.

Thus the ascesis and the repentance precede, accompany and continue the state of liberation of under the weight of the sins and of ghostual joy, ie the state initiated by the sacramental absolution of sins, which integrates it in the quotidian ghostual life.

The repentance asks the unreturn at the committed sins, says Symeon, ie a continuous ascesis, a continuous guarding as to live in the will of God[6] and the full forgiveness, refelt plenary in our being, is that, when we have arrived to hate in us the sin in perfect mode, ie then when strengthen us in those good and we have made strong through the different attempts of our life[7].

Our rupture from sins[8], how says Symeon, is the target of frequent confession of proper mistakes and, through it, what and through the frequent impartation, we come to cleanse us and to sanctify us in full mode our being.

For Symeon, as we have seen, the full forgiveness has a double aspect: the feeling of grace and of forgiveness from part of God through repentance, direct connexed with the feeling of sacramental forgiveness of sins and through looking of epithymias as stable exercise in the perimeter of repentance.

Symeon do not undermine the trust in the legal cheirotonia of Church and nor in the Mystery of Holy Confession, but, on the contrary, as priest of the Church and experiencing of the Ghost, who saw how is cheirotoned by the Ghost through the hand of bishop, Symeon asks from all holy life, ie the experience of the Ghost, for to serve and to feel the grace of the Holy Mysteries and services of the Church.

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In conclusion, Symeon is not a destabilizing of the hierarchical order from the Church, he does not instigate at the democratization of priesthood and at the elimination of hierarchical sacramental steps, but he shows that, in the lack of charismatic hierarchy, which should serve the Mysteries of the Church and be lightened by the Ghost at every step, God, and not Symeon, has given those who live holy, which are or not in clergy, to continue to lead on men, in accurate mode, at the life of holiness, through ascesis and the receiving of the Holy Ghost into consciousness.


[1] Epistles, I, apud Ică jr. 3, p. 317.

[2] Idem, II, apud Idem, p. 318.

[3] Ibidem, apud Ibidem.

[4] Idem, II, apud Idem, p. 319.

[5] Ibidem, apud Ibidem.

[6] Ibidem, apud Ibidem.

[7] Idem, II, apud Idem, p. 321.

[8] Idem, II, apud Idem, p. 322.

The Sight of God in the Theology of Saint Symeon the New Theologian [82]

Here, parts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81.

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We reproduce of the second passage from the Epistle 1, which goes on the same interior line of receiving of charisma [nor cannot be otherwise] and which cannot be understood in authentic mode, until we do not see all symeonian syllogistical on this theme:

„The Saints Apostles have transmitted, through succession, this authority those who held their seats…and the apprentices of Lord have guarded with exactness this authority. But, after how I said, once with the crossing of time, the worthy were mixed with the unworthy…[that many showed themselves] hypocriting hypocritical the virtue.

For, since when those who held the seats of Apostles showed themselves bodily and lovers of pleasure and of glory and were inclined to heresies, the divine grace has left them and this authority has been taken from them. Therefore, leaving they and all other which must have those who serve the Holy, has asked them only to be orthodoxies.

But I believe that they were not neither any this.

For orthodox is not only those who have not introduced new dogmas in the Church of God, but and those who have earned a life in accord with the right word [of teaching].

On one as this the patriarchs and the metropolitans from various times, or have searched him but they not found him, or finding him they preferred, in the place of him, on the unworthy, asking only to expose, in writing, the symbol of faith and accepting only this: as he not to be neither a zealous for good, neither to fight with someone from the cause of evil, pretending that thus holds the peace in Church – but thing that is worse than any enmity and cause of great unseating.

Therefore from this cause, the priests were made worthless and have reached as the nation…knowing and covering each other the passions, have reached worse than the nation, and the nation worse than them.

But some of the nation showed themselves better even than many priests, lightening in that dark devoid of light as some charcoals. […]

And, because between people remained only the attire and the coat of priesthood, the gift of the Ghost passed at monks, as at some who came, through facts, at the life of Apostles, and [this] was made ​​known through signs.

But and here the devil has worked on those of him…and the monks have reached worthless and they have made with all unmonks.

Thus, neither the monks only with the coat, neither those cheirotoned and entered in the rank of priesthood, neither those honest with the dignity of archieria, ie the patriarchs, the metropolitans and the bishops has not been given by God pure and simply, so, only from the cause of cheirotonia and of its dignity, and the power to forgive the sins – not to be! – , but they were permitted only to serve the Holy, and I reckon, that many of them not any this – lest, grass being, not to be burned! – , but only those, which between priests, archiereuses and monks are numbered through cleanness together with the choirs of Christ’s disciples”[1].

The decadence of majority of the members of Church is explained by our Father through the prism of loss of feeling of grace, which has been removed from them, for that they do not have a life of holiness.

Is observed that Symeon has no accents of protestant avant le temps, through which to ask the abolition of the sacramental priesthood, but he shows that, although, in functional mode, the Church has sacramental hierarchy and respects a  certain orthodox conduct and a certain conformity, more formal, with the orthodoxy of Church’s faith, than personal experienced, few are those which have a saintly life and feel what spends with them in the Mystery of Cheirotonia or in all the Mysteries and the services of Church.

But, in the same time, on measure what Symeon ascertains the lack of gracious experience at the members of clergy contemporary himself, he not preaches a forsaking of Church by the Ghost and neither a loss with all of reality of holiness from Church, as long as his life and his mystical experiences prove a strong raccordation at the life of Trinity and at life of Church.

He has not a ecclesiological theology vacuumed of holiness, after how we will see into a  subsequent section, and neither sees a rupture of the Church, from his time, of the initial life of the Church or of the direct action of the Most Holy Trinity.

Saint Symeon has no a vocation of protester, after how would want to bring him out a protestant  hermeneutic, but one of mystical Theologian, of verbalizer of holiness of christian living in Church, that is proper and absolute necessary in any century.

In the third passage that we will quote from the Epistle 1, will see and better the mode in that Symeon restored for his generation and for ours, the understanding of the power to forgive the sins, under both dimensions, ie not just historic and not just charismatic, but historico-charismatic[2]: the one who listened of his ghostual father and „he spat on all the glory from world…realizing all the virtue which we hear it reading in the Holy Scriptures and he crossed, likewise, all the work of those good, he has experienced in every day the progress, the change, the rank [on which he has it] and he was taken towards the height of divine glory…[that one can] know on himself that he has reached partaker of God and of His charismata and he will be known so and by those who see well, nay even and by those with weak view. […]

For all those who have guarded…the  commandments of God until at death…[they have found their souls] in the light thought with the mind and so, in this light, they saw the unapproachable Light, on the Lord Himself. […]

[For that Christ comes] to those who seek Him, how knows only He Himself…[and He gives them] the grace of seeing on He Himself.

This means to find your soul: to see on God, to reach in His light taller than all the creature seen, and to have as Shepherd and Teacher on God, from Which he will know, if you want, and the power to loose and to bind and, knowing it exact, he will worship the One who gave it to him and he will communicate it those who need it.

Some like them know, child, that is given to them the power to loose and to bind by God the Father and by our Lord Jesus, through the Holy Ghost: those who are His sons through adoption, Saints and slaves of Him.

To a Father like this [to Saint Symeon the Pious] I was apprentice and I. He did not have the cheirotonia from men, but he inscribed me in apprenticeship with the hand or with the Ghost of God and he commanded me, to which was put long ago in motion towards this, with strong desire, by the Holy Ghost, to receive beautiful the cheirotonia from men, after the model followed of custom”[3].

Is observed from this last citation, that Symeon requires from those who want to enter in sacramental hierarchy of the Church the experience of receiving of the Ghost, ie of the sight of light, for to receive, afterwards, and the legal cheirotonia.

The Father confessor must have, in the same time, the legal sacramental cheirotonia and, simultaneously, the legal cheirothesia into confessor, but and the interior presence, conscientized of the Holy Ghost, through Which he has, with true, the power to bind and the loose the sins of men.

In the last part of the passage quoted is seen, how the charisma of forgiveness, about which speaks Symeon, is not the sacramental, through which the priest looses or binds the sins of men, but, instead, is the charismatic power of to introduce on someone, through the Ghost, in the true experience of the cleansing of passions.

Saint Symeon the Pious was not priest, says Symeon, but he introduced him, through the Ghost, in the communion with God, Which cleanses us from passions.

The charismatic Fathers about that speaks Symeon here, those who have the power to bind and to loose, can be and from outside of clergy, between monks and laymans, but this power to bind and to loose is not the sacramental, on which we know it in the Mystery of Holy Confession, but the presence in them of the Holy Ghost, on which they can transmit it and to us, whence we can ignite and us the lamp (how said, at a time given, Symeon) and through this become our true cleaners of sins.

They cleanse us from sins not through the sacramental forgiveness of the Holy Confession, but just through ghostual contagion, through the receiving from them of the feeling of grace, which is in their being and through that we can clean and us of sins.

Saint Symeon is full grateful to his ghostual Father, after how I said, for that, through him, he received on the Ghost, has acquired the sight.

The entrance in the communion with God, through the apprenticeship to a charismatic Father, means the entrance in full forgiveness of sins and in the deleting with all of the passions.


[1] Epistles, I, apud Ică jr. 3, p. 314-315.

[2] Father Duşe noted into a article about the Holy Confession at Saint Symeon, that „for him the Confession constituted an indivisible all, a charismatic act”, for that the repentance, so how saw it Symeon, as „permanent state” or as on a personal reality with „eschatological character”, „is that leads to theology, understood here as a contemplation of God, reached on the tallest steps of purity and of unpassion”, acc. Rev. Lect. PhD student Călin-Ioan Duşe, The Mistery of Holy Confession at Saint Symeon the New Theologian [Taina Sfintei Spovedanii la Sfântul Simeon Noul Teolog], in Theological Horizons [Orizonturi teologice] II (2001), no. 1, p. 115, 107**, 108.

[3] Epistles, I, apud Ică jr. 3, p. 316-317.

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